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Table of contents
- 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Iraq
- Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:
- UN, top Iraq cleric urge 'serious' reforms after protests
Education is mandatory only through to the sixth grade, after which a national examination determines the possibility of continuing into the upper grades. In , obstacles to further reform were poor security conditions in many areas, a centralised system that lacked accountability for teachers and administrators, and the isolation in which the system functioned for the previous 30 years. According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities , the top-ranking universities in the country are the University of Dohuk th worldwide , the University of Baghdad th and Babylon University th.
Iraq is known primarily for its rich maqam heritage which has been passed down orally by the masters of the maqam in an unbroken chain of transmission leading up to the present.
2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Iraq
The maqam al-Iraqi is considered to be the most noble and perfect form of maqam. Al-maqam al-Iraqi is the collection of sung poems written either in one of the sixteen meters of classical Arabic or in Iraqi dialect Zuhayri. Early in the 20th century, many of the most prominent musicians in Iraq were Jewish.
At the nightclubs of Baghdad, ensembles consisted of oud, qanun and two percussionists, while the same format with a ney and cello were used on the radio. The most famous early composer from Iraq was Ezra Aharon , an oud player, while the most prominent instrumentalist was Daoud Al-Kuwaiti. Important cultural institutions in the capital include the Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra — rehearsals and performances were briefly interrupted during the Occupation of Iraq but have since returned to normal.
The National Theatre of Iraq was looted during the invasion, but efforts are underway to restore it. The live theatre scene received a boost during the s when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films. As many as 30 cinemas were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions. Baghdad also features a number of museums including the National Museum of Iraq — which houses the world's largest and finest collection of artefacts and relics of Ancient Iraqi civilisations; some of which were stolen during the Occupation of Iraq.
The capital, Ninus or Nineveh , was taken by the Medes under Cyaxares , and some years after Xenophon passed over its site, then mere mounds of earth. It remained buried until , when Botta and Layard discovered the ruins of the Assyrian cities. In these cities are found fragments of several great buildings which seem to have been palace-temples. They were constructed chiefly of sun-dried bricks , and all that remains of them is the lower part of the walls, decorated with sculpture and paintings, portions of the pavements, a few indications of the elevation, and some interesting works connected with the drainage.
After the end of the full state control in , there were a period of significant growth in the broadcast media in Iraq. Immediately, and the ban on satellite dishes is no longer in place, and by mid, according to a BBC report, there were 20 radio stations from 0. Significantly, there have been many of these newspapers in numbers disproportionate to the population of their locations. For example, in Najaf , which has a population of ,, is being published more than 30 newspapers and distributed.
Iraqi media expert and author of a number of reports on this subject, Ibrahim Al Marashi, identifies four stages of the US invasion of Iraq in where they had been taking the steps that have significant effects on the way for the later of the Iraqi media since then. Stages are: pre-invasion preparation, and the war and the actual choice of targets, the first post-war period, and a growing insurgency and hand over power to the Iraqi Interim Government IIG and Prime Minister Iyad Allawi.
Iraqi cuisine can be traced back some 10, years — to the Sumerians , Akkadians , Babylonians , Assyrians and Ancient Persians. Some characteristic ingredients of Iraqi cuisine include — vegetables such as aubergine , tomato , okra , onion , potato , courgette , garlic , peppers and chilli , cereals such as rice , bulgur wheat and barley , pulses and legumes such as lentils , chickpeas and cannellini , fruits such as dates , raisins , apricots , figs , grapes , melon , pomegranate and citrus fruits , especially lemon and lime.
Similarly with other countries of Western Asia , chicken and especially lamb are the favourite meats. Most dishes are served with rice — usually Basmati , grown in the marshes of southern Iraq. Football is the most popular sport in Iraq. Football is a considerable uniting factor in Iraq following years of war and unrest. Basketball , swimming , weightlifting , bodybuilding , boxing , kick boxing and tennis are also popular sports.
Despite having mobile phones in the Middle East since , Iraqis were only able to use mobile phones after , as Mobile phones were banned under Saddam Hussein 's rule. According to the Iraqi Ministry of Communication, Iraq is now in the second phase of building and launching a multipurpose strategic satellite. On 18 January , Iraq was connected to the undersea communications network for the first time.
In October , the Iraqi Minister for Communication ordered internet prices to be lowered by a third. This is an attempt to boost usage and comes as a result of significant improvements in Internet infrastructure in the country. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country in Western Asia.
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For other uses, see Iraq disambiguation. Country in the Middle East. Arabic Kurdish . Turkish Assyrian Armenian. Constitution of Iraq, Article 4 1st. Main article: History of Iraq.
Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:
Main article: History of Mesopotamia. This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. Main articles: Ottoman Iraq and Mamluk dynasty of Iraq. Main articles: Mandatory Iraq and Kingdom of Iraq. See also: Iraqi Civil War — , American-led intervention in Iraq —present , Iraqi—Kurdish conflict , and Iraqi insurgency —present.
Main articles: Geography of Iraq and Governorates of Iraq. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message.
UN, top Iraq cleric urge 'serious' reforms after protests
Main article: Politics of Iraq. Main article: Law of Iraq. Main article: Iraqi Armed Forces. Controlled by Iraqi government.
Controlled by Iraqi Kurds. Main article: Foreign relations of Iraq. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Main article: Human rights in Iraq. Main article: Governorates of Iraq. Main article: Economy of Iraq. Main articles: Oil reserves in Iraq and Energy in Iraq.
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Iraq. See also: Demographics of Iraq.